As consumers we are constantly making sub-conscious calculations about the relative value of the innumerable options presented to us– choices about leisure activities, cars, clothes and computers. This is what drives our perceptions of ‘value for money.’
In the case of purchasing an airline seat the need to be satisfied is simple – to get from A to B – and the means of satisfying it is clear, along with all the attendant features, such as, seat size, location, leg room, etc. There is something OBJECTIVE about a seat on an airplane at a specific time to specific destination, but when it comes to a seat in a theatre at a specific time for a specific show the experience gained is almost entirely SUBJECTIVE.
The value gained from attending an arts event is entirely a function of perception. People exchange money for arts experiences only if they believe they are getting value in return. But what is that value? Economists use the term ‘utility’ or satisfaction of needs, wants or desires.
Attending an arts event is almost always like buying a brand-new product, which the customer has never experienced. In fact, the product doesn’t exist until you experience it; and even then that experience is almost entirely in the mind. So what we are selling is the expectation of value to be received. In effect customers are buying a PROMISE, which is why the communication of value offered by an arts event is so fundamental.
In marketing class we’re taught about the difference between features and benefits. It’s also why brands are so important in our sector. In a sense, brands are value; or rather they enhance value by communicating it more effectively. Branding should therefore be an ideal means of communicating (and thus creating) perceived value for the arts.
When making a purchase of a product or service, people frequently base their decisions not on the ACTUAL attributes of a product or experience, but on the information they have available about the attributes of a specific value proposition. Often that information is incomplete which leads to biased, or frequently irrational, decisions, especially with something as intangible as the arts. And as an arts marketer, you need to recognize that your patrons won’t realize the value they are expecting if they don’t know about it. And often we don’t communicate the true value (i.e. the art, the experience, the uniqueness). We talk in jargon which means something to us, but nothing to the patron. Or, we focus the conversation on price.
To put it simply: value not communicated is valueless. The corollary is even more powerful: The better you communicate the true value you offer – value as defined by the consumer – the more you increase that value, the more likely the customer will buy.
About Tim Baker
Baker Richards Consulting
Tim Baker is director of U.K.-based arts management consultancy Baker Richards, and vice president of its U.S. sister company, The Pricing Institute. He has been developing his work in pricing and marketing research and strategy for more than two decades, and his companies have worked with more than 250 major arts organizations worldwide. Tim was chair of the UK Arts Marketing Association and has been invited to speak on pricing and marketing in the U.K., United States, Australia, New Zealand, and across continental Europe. Prior to his consultancy career, Tim spent seven years as marketing director of the Scottish Chamber Orchestra, before which he was head of marketing at the London Symphony Orchestra. He is the author of the classical music marketing book, Stop Reinventing the Wheel, published by the Association of British Orchestras.
About Steven Roth
The Pricing Institute
Steven Roth is president of The Pricing Institute, a consultancy and software provider. Pricing Institute partners have helped close to 300 arts organizations worldwide develop pricing strategies that maximize income and optimize occupancy. Steven is a frequent speaker at industry conferences and teaches customer relationship management at the Boston University Graduate School of Management. He began his career as the marketing director for The Shubert Organization and is board chair of ArtsBoston.